Official 12 Passage 2
Question 1 of 14

The word “regarded” in the passage is closest in meaning to












Transition to Sound in Film

[#paragraph1]The shift from silent to sound film at the end of the 1920’s marks, so far, the most important transformation in motion picture history. Despite all the highly visible technological developments in theatrical and home delivery of the moving image that have occurred over the decades since then, no single innovation has come close to being [#highlight1]regarded[/highlight1] as a similar kind of watershed. In nearly every language, however the words are phrased, the most basic division in cinema history lies between films that are mute and films that speak.

[#paragraph2]Yet this most fundamental standard of historical periodization conceals a host of [#highlight3]paradoxes[/highlight3]. Nearly every movie theater, however modest, had a piano or organ to provide musical accompaniment to silent pictures. In many instances, spectators in the era before recorded sound experienced elaborate aural presentations alongside movies’ visual images, from the [#highlight4]Japanese benshi[/highlight4] (narrators) crafting multivoiced dialogue narratives to [#highlight4]original musical compositions[/highlight4] performed by symphony-size orchestras in Europe and the United States. In Berlin, for the premiere performance outside the Soviet Union of The Battleship Potemkin, film director Sergei Eisenstein worked with Austrian composer Edmund Meisel (1874–1930) on a musical score matching sound to image; the Berlin screenings with live music helped to bring the film its wide international fame.

[#paragraph3]Beyond that, the triumph of recorded sound has [#highlight6]overshadowed[/highlight6] the rich diversity of technological and aesthetic experiments with the visual image that were going forward simultaneously in the 1920’s. New color processes, larger or differently shaped screen sizes, multiple-screen projections, even television, were among the developments invented or tried out during the period, sometimes with startling success. The high costs of converting to sound and the early limitations of sound technology were among the factors that suppressed innovations or retarded advancement in these other areas. The introduction of new screen formats was put off for a quarter century, and color, though utilized over the next two decades for special productions, also did not become a norm until the 1950’s.

[#paragraph4][#highlight8]Though it may be difficult to imagine from a later perspective, a strain of critical opinion in the 1920’s predicted that sound film would be a technical novelty that would soon fade from sight, just as had many previous attempts, dating well back before the First World War, to link images with recorded sound.[/highlight8] These critics were making a common assumption—that the technological inadequacies of earlier efforts (poor synchronization, weak sound amplification, fragile sound recordings) would invariably occur again. To be sure, their evaluation of the technical flaws in 1920’s sound experiments was not so far off the mark, yet they [#highlight9]neglected[/highlight9] to take into account important new forces in the motion picture field that, in a sense, would not take no for an answer.

[#paragraph5]These forces were the rapidly expanding electronics and telecommunications companies that were developing and linking telephone and wireless technologies in the 1920’s. In the United States, they included such firms as American Telephone and Telegraph, General Electric, and Westinghouse. They were interested in all forms of sound technology and all potential avenues for commercial exploitation. Their competition and collaboration were creating the broadcasting industry in the United States, beginning with the introduction of commercial radio programming in the early 1920’s. [#insert1] With financial assets considerably greater than those in the motion picture industry, and perhaps a wider vision of the relationships among entertainment and communications media, they revitalized research into recording sound for motion pictures.

[#paragraph6] [#insert2] In 1929 the United States motion picture industry released more than 300 sound films—a rough figure, since a number were silent films with music tracks, or films prepared in dual versions, to take account of the many cinemas not yet wired for sound. [#insert3] At the production level, in the United States the conversion was virtually complete by 1930. [#insert4] In Europe it took a little longer, mainly because there were more small producers for whom the costs of sound were prohibitive, and in other parts of the world problems with rights or access to equipment delayed the shift to sound production for a few more years (though cinemas in major cities may have been wired in order to play foreign sound films). The triumph of sound cinema was swift, complete, and enormously popular.