Official 7 Task 3
Reading

Behavior Modification
 

Individuals often modify their behavior based on what they have learned about the possible consequences of their actions. When an individual learns through experience that a certain behavior results in pleasant consequences, that behavior is likely to be repeated. An unpleasant consequence, on the other hand, discourages further repetition of the behavior. While behavior modification can be observed in experiments, it also occurs frequently in everyday settings, when individuals change their behavior based on what they have learned about the consequences of that behavior.

 

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Narrator: Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic in a Psychology class.
Professor: This happens all the time with kids in schools.
Say there's a little boy or girl who is just starting school.
Well, they're not really used to the rules about proper behavior for a classroom,
so at the beginning they might,
I don't know,
interrupt the teacher,
walk around the classroom when they're supposed to be sitting down,
you know, just misbehaving in general.
OK, but what happens?
Well, the teacher gets angry with them when they act this way.
They might get punished.
They have to sit at their desks when everyone else is allowed to go outside and play,
and they certainly don't like that.
Soon they'll learn that this kind of behavior gets them in trouble.
They'll also learn that when they raise their hand to talk to the teacher,
and sit quietly and pay attention during class,
they are rewarded.
The teacher tells them she's proud of them,
and maybe puts little happy face stickers on their homework.
Now that their behavior gets a good reaction from the teacher,
the kids learn to always act this way in class and not behave the way they used to.
Question

Using the example from the lecture, explain what behavior modification is and how it works.